Meyer Friedman & Ray Rosenman, leading cardiologists in NY noticed similarities in their patients prone to heart disease and classified them as Type A & B.
Type A: Have a particularly complex of personality traits, including excessive competition drive, aggressiveness, impatience, and a harrying sense of time urgency. Individuals displaying this pattern seem to engage in chronic, ceaseless and often fruitless struggle – with themselves, with others, with circumstances, with time, sometimes with life itself. This stood in contrast to Type B: Rarely harried by life or made hostile by its demands. Intelligent, frequently just as ambitious as Type A. They’ve considerable amount of drive but its character is such that it seems to steady him, give confidence and security to him, rather than to goad, irritate, and infuriate, as with Type A man.
Drawing on his understanding of the human psyche, as well as his experience as a leader, McGregor began rethinking the conventions of modern management, and in his groundbreaking book, The Human Side of Enterprise, he argued that those running companies were operating from faulty assumptions about human behavior. McGregor said there was an alternative view of employees – one that offered a more accurate assessment of the human condition and a more effective starting point for running companies. this perspective held that taking an interest in work i s “as natural as play or rest,” that creativity and ingenuity were widely distributed in the population, and that under proper conditions, people will accept, and even seek, responsibility.
To explain the contrasting outlooks, McGregor mined the back end of the alphabet . He called first view Theory X and second Theory Y. If you’re starting point was Theory X, he said, your managerial techniques would inevitably produce limited results, or even go awry entirely. If you believed in “the mediocrity of the masses”, as he put it, then mediocrity became the ceiling on what you could achieve. But if your starting point was theory Y, the possibilities are vast-not simply for the individual’s potential, but for the company’s bottom-line as well. With these 2 people’s comment as the hoist, Pink introduces 2 alphabets about human motivation.
Type eXtrinsic: this behavior is fuelled by extrinsic desires than intrinsic ones. They always neglect inherent enjoyment, deeper satisfaction is welcome but secondary. Type Intrinsic behavior:
- Almost always outperform Type X
- Is both born and made
- Does not disdain money or recognition
- is a renewable resource
- promotes great physical and mental well-being
3 elements to motivate people is Autonomy, Mastery and Purpose
Four Essentials – Task, Technique, Time, Team – What people do, when they do it, How they do it and with whom they do it with
- Task: 3M, Google allow experimental doodling – 20% off on what you like
- Time: ROWE – results only work environment
- Technique: Zappos leave it to call center folks to decide the technique but emphasize on happiness and stickiness as outcomes and they’re ok to hang on the phone for more time as required to service a customer
- Team: In Whole Foods, prospective teammates vote whether to hire a person full-time after probation and they also interview
Frequent frustration in workplace is mismatch of what people must do and what people can do, hence when what they must do exceeds their capabilities, anxiety results and the other hand, boredom. When the match is right, results are glorious and is the essence of flow – walking the tightrope between accident and discipline. There are 3 laws of mastery: It is a mindset, pain and asymptote
Mindset: Getting A in French is a performance goal whereas being able to speak French is learning goal. Both can fuel achievement but only one can lead to mastery.
Pain: The importance of working hard is easily apprehended, the importance of working longer without switching objectives may be less perceptible…in every field, grit may be as essential as talent to high accomplishment, hence passion and perseverance for long-term goals is essential
Asymptote: Is a curved line that approaches a horizontal line but never quite reaches it. Professional players when being amateurs say they can and must. Even after a terrific outing, they say they’re amateurs and still pursuing mastery, hence something you can never attain. The joy is in the pursuit more than in realization.
Create a sustainable economic, social and environmental prosperity worldwide. Humans by their nature, seek purpose – to make a contribution and to be part of a cause greater and more enduring than themselves.